Characteristic | Nondiabetic subjects (n = 1043) | Diabetic subjects (n = 269) | All subjects (n = 1,312) | P |
---|---|---|---|---|
Male | 939 (90) | 218 (81) | 1,157 (88) | <0.0001 |
Age (years) | 65.7 ± 7.8 | 66.4 ± 7.4 | 65.9 ± 7.7 | 0.18 |
BMI | 27.4 ± 4.5 | 28.8 ± 4.9 | 27.7 ± 4.6 | <0.0001 |
Smoking history | ||||
Current smoker | 284 (27) | 68 (25) | 352 (27) | 0.41 |
Former smoker | 535 (51) | 150 (56) | 685 (52) | |
Non smoker | 224 (22) | 51 (19) | 275 (21) | |
Alcohol usage | 656 (64) | 104 (39) | 760 (59) | <0.0001 |
Exercise regularly | 676 (69) | 170 (64) | 846 (68) | 0.17 |
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) | 141.0 ± 19.8 | 145.1 ± 21.3 | 141.9 ± 20.2 | 0.003 |
Cholesterol (mmol/l) | 6.00 ± 1.07 | 5.71 ± 1.30 | 5.94 ± 1.13 | 0.0009 |
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) | 1.20 ± 0.41 | 1.05 ± 0.36 | 1.17 ± 0.41 | <0.0001 |
Triglycerides (mmol/l) | 1.94 ± 1.41 | 2.42 ± 2.49 | 2.04 ± 1.70 | 0.002 |
Calcium score | 47.7 (0.00, 254.2) | 104.7 (9.4, 433.3) | 57.8 (0.00, 285.1) | <0.0001 |
Data are n (%) or mean ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Calcium score expressed as median (25th, 75th quartile). Statistical testing used two-sample t tests (for continuous variables), χ^{2} tests (for discrete variables), and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test for the calcium score. The Welch t test was used for variables with unequal variance (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides). To convert cholesterol values to mg/dl, multiply by 38.6; for triglycerides, multiply by 88.5.